Spadeleaf Philodendron (Philodendron domesticum)
“Pet poisonous” – Toxic parts: entire plant Philodendron domesticum, also called spadeleaf philodendron or burgundy philodendron, is a member of the genus Philodendron. Its arrow-shaped glossy leaves grow to be 22 inches (56 cm) long and 9 inches (23 cm) wide when mature. Burgundy philodendron gets its name from the color of its stems and new growth. Philodendron domesticum is also commonly grown as a houseplant, and has been shown to remove harmful chemicals from the air. Compared to other genera of the family Araceae, philodendrons have an extremely diverse array of growth methods. The habits of growth can be epiphytic, hemiepiphytic, or rarely terrestrial. Others can show a combination of these growth habits depending on the environment. Hemiepiphytic philodendrons can be classified into two types: primary and secondary hemiepiphytes. A primary hemiepiphytic philodendron starts life high up in the canopy where the seed initially sprouts. The plant then grows as an epiphyte. Once it has reached a sufficient size and age, it will begin producing aerial roots that grow toward the forest floor. Once they reach the forest floor, nutrients can be obtained directly from the soil. In this manner, the plant's strategy is to obtain light early in its life at the expense of nutrients. Some primary epiphytic species have a symbiotic relationship with ants. In these species, the ants' nest is grown amongst the plant's roots, which help keep the nest together. Philodendrons have extrafloral nectaries, glands that secrete nectar to attract the ants.The philodendron, in turn, obtains nutrients from the surrounding ant nest, and the aggressive nature of the ants serves to protect the plant from other insects which would eat it.