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02-20-2024

Music triggers unique 'prediction zones' in the brain

Ever hear a song, and suddenly you’re back at that concert, feeling goosebumps? Or imagine a whole scene when a certain beat drops? It’s not magic — it’s science. University of California San Francisco (UCSF) scientists wanted to know how our brain understands and “guesses” music flow. 

The analysis reveals that music is not just notes on a page but a narrative that our brains create while listening. 

Tracking brain response to music

Participants from the study volunteered to have their brains scanned while listening to music. They had epilepsy and were already undergoing brain monitoring as part of their treatment. 

The researchers played them short musical snippets called “phrases” with different note patterns. Some phrases were predictable, repeating familiar patterns, while others surprised them with unexpected notes.

To track their brain activity, the researchers used a special technique called “high-density electrocorticography” (ECoG). This involves placing many tiny electrodes directly on the scalp, allowing for precise measurements of electrical activity in different areas. It’s like having many tiny microphones listening to different parts of your brain.

By comparing the brain activity with the predictable and unpredictable phrases, the researchers could see which brain regions were more active when people anticipated the next note and which were active when they were surprised.

Distinct areas for pitch and melody

The researchers found that while some parts of the brain handle pitch and pitch changes similarly for music and speech, music has its own special way of handling “expectations.” 

While our brains use similar areas to understand both music and speech, there’s a key difference. Music triggers unique “prediction zones” that speech does not. This means our brains are wired to anticipate what’s coming next in a song, much more so than in a conversation.

Study co-author Dr. Edward Chang is a chair of neurosurgery and a member of the Weill Institute for Neurosciences at UCSF.

“We found that some of how we understand a melody is entwined with how we understand speech, while other important aspects of music stand alone,” explained Dr. Chang.

Study significance 

Why is this special ability important? Because unlike speech, where meaning comes from grammar and vocabulary, music’s meaning and power lie in its emotional impact and unique patterns.

Our brains naturally crave and respond to these patterns, creating the strong memories and feelings music often evokes.

This also explains why music transcends cultures and languages. Even without words, we can connect to the emotions of a melody because our brains are primed to appreciate its structure and patterns.

Influence of cultural background

While our brains process the basic sounds of music (pitch and changes) similarly across cultures, anticipating what comes next in music (melodic expectation) might be a different story. The study suggests this ability could be influenced by the music we are exposed to throughout our lives.

Think of it this way: if you grew up listening to Western classical music, your brain might expect certain melodic patterns based on that tradition. However, someone raised on Indian ragas would have different expectations based on their musical experience.

Music as brain therapy

Music’s effect on our brains holds promise for improving various neurological and mental health conditions. The research knowledge is exciting because it highlights music’s potential for targeted therapies.

In the future, doctors could use music to activate brain areas vital for emotional control, memory, and movement in patients recovering from brain injuries or with mental health issues. By stimulating these areas with music, we could encourage “rewiring” of the brain, aiding recovery.

The study also opens doors for personalized music therapy based on individual needs. For example, understanding how expectations in music work could help design therapy to improve attention and memory or even ease anxiety and depression through music’s emotional pull. 

Engaging patients in making their own music or using their preferred songs in therapy could be especially powerful, as it taps into the brain’s prediction abilities, potentially leading to stronger benefits.

Further research is needed to fully unlock music therapy’s potential, but this study paints a promising picture.

Broader implications 

Understanding how our brains react to music holds exciting potential across various fields. In education, learning how brains absorb musical patterns could improve teaching methods, making music learning more natural and effective. 

Additionally, music’s unique ability to engage specific brain areas makes it a promising tool for cognitive training, potentially bolstering memory, attention, and auditory skills in various populations.

Looking at creativity, insights into how we anticipate musical sequences could foster innovation. Programs could stimulate improvisation and composition by tapping into the brain’s natural prediction mechanisms, unlocking new avenues for creative expression.

This understanding can even influence technology. By mimicking the brain’s way of processing music, AI systems could compose or recommend music that resonates more deeply with our emotions and preferences. 

Future directions for studying music and the brain

For athletes and performers, strategically using music can optimize their mental state before important events, boosting focus and reducing anxiety.

“It’s obvious that exposure to music enriches our social, emotional and intellectual lives and has potential to treat a broad range of conditions.To understand why music is able to confer all these benefits, we need to answer some fundamental questions about how music works in the brain,” said study lead author Dr. Narayan Sankaran.

Long-term studies following individuals over time could provide valuable data on how the processing of musical expectations and pitch might change with aging, experience, or cognitive decline.

So next time you listen to or play music, remember, it’s not just your ears having fun – your brain is having a party, too.

The study is published in the journal Science Advances.‌

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