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The Columbian white-tailed deer is named after the Columbia River in Oregon and Washington where it congregates. Columbian white-tailed deer are found along the lower Columbia River, on a series of islands in Clatsop and Columbia counties in Oregon, and Wahkiakum County, Washington. Other populations are found in the valley floors of the Umpqua River basin.
This white-tailed deer usually lives in and around riparian areas. It can also be found in brushy woodlots that contain cottonwood, willow, alder, spruce, and dogwood trees.
Unlike other white-tailed deer subspecies, which may breed at six months of age, female Columbian white-tailed deer first breed at about 18 months; they commonly have a single fawn. Male deer, or bucks, are also capable of breeding at 18 months of age.