The young plant grows straight upwards and has the form of a narrow cone with branches going out along the length of the trunk. However, as it gains in height, the lowest branches are shed, preventing vines from climbing. By maturity, the top branches form an imposing crown that stands out over all other native trees, dominating the forest canopy. The flaking bark of the kauri tree defends it from parasitic plants, and accumulates around the base of the trunk. On large trees it may pile up to a height of 2 m or more. The kauri has a habit of forming small clumps or patches scattered through mixed forests. Kauri leaves are 3 to 7 cm long and 1 cm broad, tough and leathery in texture, with no midrib; they are arranged in opposite pairs or whorls of three on the stem. The seed cones are globose, 5 to 7 cm diameter, and mature 18 to 20 months after pollination; the seed cones disintegrate at maturity to release winged seeds, which are then dispersed by the wind. A single tree produces both male and female seed cones. Fertilisation of the seeds occurs by pollination, which may be driven by the same or another tree's pollen.Agathis australis can attain heights of 40 to 50 metres and trunk diameters big enough to rival Californian sequoias at over 5 metres. The largest kauri trees did not attain as much height or girth at ground level but contain more timber in their cylindrical trunks than comparable Sequoias with their tapering stems. The largest recorded specimen was known as The Great Ghost and grew in the mountains at the head of the Tararu Creek, which drains into the Hauraki Gulf just north of the mouth of the Waihou River (Thames). Thames Historian Alastair Isdale says the tree was 8.54 metres in diameter, and 26.83 metres in girth. It was consumed by fire c.1890. A kauri tree at Mill Creek, Mercury Bay, known as Father of the Forests was measured in the early 1840s as 22 metres in circumference and 24 metres to the first branches. It was recorded as being killed by lightning in that period. Another huge tree, Kairaru, had a girth of 20.1 metres and a columnar trunk free of branches for 30.5 metres as measured by a Crown Lands ranger, Henry Wilson, in 1860. It was on a spur of Mt Tutamoe about 30 km south of Waipoua Forest near Kaihau. It was destroyed in the 1880s or 1890s when a series of huge fires swept the area Other trees far larger than living kauri have been noted in other areas. Rumors of stumps up to 6 metres are sometimes suggested in areas such as the Billygoat Track above the Kauaeranga Valley near Thames. However, there is no good evidence for these (e.g., a documented measurement or a photograph with a person for scale). Given that over 90 per cent of the area of kauri forest standing before 1000AD was destroyed by about 1900, it is not surprising that recent records are of smaller, but still very large trees. Two large kauri fell during tropical storms in the 1970s. One of these was Toronui, in Waipoua Forest. Its diameter was larger than that of Tane Mahuta and its clean bole larger than that of Te Matua Ngahere, and by forestry measurements was the largest standing. Another tree, Kopi, in Omahuta Forest near the standing Hokianga kauri, was the third largest with a height of 56.39 metres (185') and a diameter of 4.19 metres (13.75'). It fell in 1973. Like many ancient kauri both trees were partly hollow.