Floating sea ice encompasses Antarctica and sea Ice land mass. Ice concentration is a measure of the real coverage of sea ice, which becomes less concentrated at greater distances from shore. Also Scientists want to know where this sea ice is thinning and thickening to better understand its role in the Earth system.
Antarctica contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the east region of the Southern Hemisphere. Also almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size of Australia. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.