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Unknown radio burst traveled through space for 8 billion years to reach Earth

An international team of scientists has detected what is now considered the most distant cosmic radio burst known to humanity, breaking previous records and stunning the scientific community. This discovery not only helps in understanding the mysterious phenomena known as fast radio bursts (FRBs), but also opens a path to probing the unseen matter in the universe.

Cosmic mystery: FRB 20220610A

Fast radio bursts are extraordinarily powerful flares of energy in the cosmos, and their fleeting nature makes them particularly challenging to observe. The newly discovered burst, designated FRB 20220610A, holds the record for the most distant FRB detected. Its signal took a staggering eight billion years to reach Earth.

This event was identified by the ASKAP radio telescope in Australia and later studied using the European Southern Observatory’s (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile.

The astounding energy released by FRB 20220610A is incomparable. In a fraction of a second, it emitted energy equivalent to what our Sun produces over three decades.

“We utilized ASKAP’s cutting-edge technology to pinpoint the burst’s origin, leading us to its source galaxy, which is significantly older and more remote than any other FRB source discovered so far,” explained Stuart Ryder, an astronomer at Macquarie University in Australia and co-lead author of the research.

FRBs as cosmic yardsticks

One of the most perplexing conundrums in modern cosmology is the discrepancy in measurements of the universe’s mass. Traditional techniques have struggled to account for all the normal matter (baryonic matter) that theoretical predictions insist should exist.

Ryan Shannon, from Swinburne University of Technology, highlights the crux of the problem. He said, “Over half of the normal matter that should exist in the universe is currently undetectable. We suspect it’s adrift in the vast spaces between galaxies, potentially in a hot, diffuse state that evades our conventional observation methods.”

However, with FRBs like the recently observed FRB 20220610A, researchers have a unique new tool. These cosmic phenomena interact with the ionized material in space, offering an innovative way to detect the elusive particles residing in the vast cosmic voids.

“FRBs have the incredible ability to sense this ocean of electrons, even in the most vacant stretches of space. This quality allows us to quantify the amount of matter present in the intergalactic mediums,” Shannon adds.

Validating the Macquart relation

The importance of understanding FRBs was emphasized by the late Australian astronomer Jean-Pierre Macquart. In 2020, he proposed what is now known as the Macquart relation, suggesting that the more distant an FRB, the more it reveals about the diffuse gas interspersed between galaxies.

“Some recent FRBs seemed to contradict this principle. However, our findings with FRB 20220610A confirm that the Macquart relation remains consistent across more than half the observable universe,” states Ryder, underscoring the principle’s continued relevance.

Future study of fast radio bursts

While the cause of FRBs remains an enigma, the discovery confirms their ubiquity in the universe and their potential as tools for cosmic exploration. Current telescopes have reached their operational limits in this quest, but a new generation of observatories promises to transcend these boundaries.

The international Square Kilometre Array Observatory is spearheading this new era, constructing radio telescopes in South Africa and Australia designed to discover thousands of FRBs, even those lurking further than FRB 20220610A.

Concurrently, ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope, now rising from the Chilean Atacama Desert, is set to join the few elite observatories capable of investigating these source galaxies.

With these advancements on the horizon, the quest to understand the universe’s hidden mass and the enigmatic nature of FRBs takes an exciting turn. As we brace for the revelations these futuristic telescopes will uncover, the cosmic odyssey to decipher the universe’s deepest secrets continues unabated.

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