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Theories about the natural world must be updated due to human interference

A new study published in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution suggests that well-established ecological theories might need to be revised to account for human interference with natural systems.

According to the researchers, due to the cumulative nature of science, theories about the natural world must now be changed to reflect human impacts.

Distribution theories

In the 1950s and 1960s, scientists crafted theories to predict the ecological distribution of species across various environments

The projections were also based on certain variables such as temperature and food availability. These theories, when tested on smaller scales, proved accurate. 

Depth zonation model

One of the earliest theories was focused on coral reef zones. This particular model explains how various fish types or corals are discovered on reefs at differing depths.

Today, advancements in modern computing make it possible for researchers to test these ecological theories on a larger scale.

Scientists from Bangor University and the US Government National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) set out to verify the depth zonation theory on coral reefs.

The human influence 

Led by Dr. Laura Richardson, the team analyzed data from 5,525 surveys across 35 Pacific Ocean islands.

The results were alarming. On uninhabited islands with no past or present human activity, the zonation model accurately predicted fish species distribution based on depth. 

However, islands with a history of human habitation revealed an inconsistent pattern, deviating from the predictions of the classical model.

This deviation underscores a pressing concern – the long-standing ecological models may be showing cracks under the weight of local human impacts. These once-reliable frameworks might now be antiquated for a world so profoundly shaped by human actions.

Study implications 

“Science is cumulative, building on past work. Now that we have greater computing capabilities, we should be testing these widely accepted but spatially under-validated theories at scale,” said Dr. Richardson.

“Moreover the intervening years have seen human impacts on the environment increase to such an extent that these models may no longer predict the ecological distribution patterns we see today.”

“This leads to more questions, both about the usefulness of models which represented a world less impacted by human activity, and about how to quantify or model our impact on the natural environment.”

“The results show that now is the time to consider whether and how to include human impacts into our understanding of the natural world today.”

Human interference with the natural world

Our impact on nature has been a topic of increasing concern in recent decades. The effects of human actions on the environment have led to a myriad of consequences, both direct and indirect. 


One of the most visible impacts, deforestation involves clearing large areas of forests for urban development, agriculture, and logging. This results in habitat loss for many species, reduces biodiversity, and affects the global carbon cycle.


Ranging from air and water pollution to soil contamination, pollution has severe implications for both human health and the environment. Pollutants can harm aquatic life, affect forest ecosystems, and lead to global issues like acid rain and the greenhouse effect.

Climate change

Largely a result of burning fossil fuels and deforestation, human-induced climate change is leading to rising global temperatures, melting polar ice, and more frequent extreme weather events. Sea level rise and ocean acidification also pose significant threats to marine ecosystems.


Humans have depleted many fish stocks to the point where they cannot regenerate, leading to ecological imbalances in marine ecosystems.

Land degradation

Agriculture, mining, and urban sprawl have resulted in soil erosion, salinization, and other forms of land degradation, which in turn affect agriculture and biodiversity.

Loss of biodiversity

Habitat destruction, pollution, climate change, and introduction of invasive species are all human-induced factors that lead to a decline in biodiversity. This decline has long-term consequences for ecosystems’ resilience and functioning.

Water usage

Over-extraction of freshwater for agricultural, industrial, and domestic purposes has led to shrinking lakes, rivers, and groundwater levels, affecting both human populations and ecosystems that rely on these water sources.

Waste production

The massive amounts of waste, including plastics, produced by human societies end up in landfills, oceans, and other ecosystems. This not only poses a threat to wildlife but also contributes to soil and water contamination.


Rapid urban growth without sustainable planning can lead to habitat fragmentation, increased pollution, and strain on local resources.

Chemical agriculture

The use of pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers in modern agriculture can have detrimental effects on local ecosystems, contaminating waterways and negatively impacting non-target species.

The challenge for society is to find ways to meet human needs and aspirations while minimizing negative impacts on the environment. We can do this by embracing sustainable practices, promoting conservation, and adopting innovative technologies to reduce our ecological footprint.

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